(10) A geographical bar graph plot

Our next and perhaps most business-like example presents a three-dimensional bar graph plot showing the geographic distribution of all the languages of the world. The input data was taken from Ethnologue. We decide to plot a 3-D multi-band column centered on each continent with a height that is proportional to the languages used. We choose a plain linear projection for the basemap and add the multi-band columns and text on top. The different bands in the columns indicate how commonly the languages are used, from institutional languages to languages threatened by extinction. The script also shows how to effectively use transparency of the boxes around the numbers and in the shade surrounding the legend. Our script that produces Figure 10 reads:

using GMT

coast(region=:global, shore=:faint, land=:wheat, ocean=:azure2, area=5000,
      view=(200,40), proj=(name=:PlateCarree, center=(0,37.5)))
D = gmtread("@languages_10.txt")
text!(vec(string.(Int.(sum(D[:, 3:end], dims=2)))), x=D[:,1], y=D[:,2],       # Sum by continents
      font=(20,"Helvetica-Bold","firebrick=thinner"), justify=:RM, fill="white@30", offset=(-0.6,0))
cpt = makecpt(color=(:purple, :blue, :darkgreen, :yellow, :red), range="0,1,2,3,4,5")
bar3!(D, region=(-180,180,-90,90,0,2500), color=cpt, bar=(width=0.6, Nbands=5),
      frame=(axes=:WSneZ, annot=:auto, ticks=:auto, title="World Languages By Continent"),
      zaxis=(annot=500, label=:Languages), fill=:purple, lw=:thinner, zsize=8,
      par=(FONT_TITLE="30p,Times-Bold", MAP_TITLE_OFFSET=-1.8, FORMAT_GEO_MAP=:dddF), view=(200,40))
legend!("@legend_10.txt", JZ=true, pos=(anchor=:LB, width=3.5, justify=:LB, offset=0.5),
        box=(fill=:lightgrey, pen=:thinner, shaded="-4p/-6p/grey20@40"), show=true)